Monitors and Discharge Devices
Pressure loss terminology comes from the pressure drop measured at a predetermined ﬂow rate between entry point to the monitor system (i.e. ﬂanges) and where it exits the system (outlet connection for discharge devices). C.S.I. S.r.l. shares information regarding pressure losses created by the monitor body versus ﬂow rate passing through, and indicates the pressure-ﬂow rate relations of the single discharge devices at a pressure rate applied to the discharge device. This enables the user to choose the correct combination of the monitor body size and the discharge device ﬂow rate dependently of each other in order to satisfy ﬁre protection needs.
Monitor bodies generally consist of two joints which are used for the horizontal and vertical orientation of the ﬂow. Joints are rolling mechanisms which ensure the ﬂuid transfer internally from the base connection up to the discharge device connection, while keeping the ﬂuid ﬂowing in the structure creating lower pressure loses thanks to its engineered dimensions. As standard joints house two ball races which are under grease bath. Joints are equipped with greasing nipples to assure the correct level of grease, since during production the grease is ﬁlled and does not need to be ﬁlled repeatedly if no adverse eﬀect has been noted. The integrity of joints completed by O-Ring's at inlet and outlet sides.
C.S.I. S.r.l. produces monitors according to customer's requirements as vertical or lowered models to reduce the lever eﬀect of the transmitted reaction forces to the base onto which it is installed. For example, lowered models are ideal for over trailer applications where reaction forces are critical to keep the trailer stable and also lowered models are common for over hydrant installations to reduce traversal moments applied to the hydrant construction which may create cracks. Reaction forces are created on the discharge devices where the thrown liquid leaves the monitor system and are calculated according to Newton's second formula by using pressure and ﬂow rates. Maximum throw length theoretically should be achieved with an inclination to the horizontal axis of 45° but in practice it is achieved at an inclination of 30-32° and another important factor is the ﬂuid thrown and discharge pattern provided by the discharge device. While water branch pipes guarantee maximum throw lengths with a solid water jet stream, self- foam concentrate aspirating jet-fog nozzles with spray-fog stream create smaller droplets and expanded foam create a larger cross sectional area during travel with reduces distance travelled. Foam concentrate types used by the monitor system create signiﬁcant diﬀerences according to their types. For example while FP and FFFP-AR type foam concentrates when thrown by foam branch pipes create similar throw patterns like water, AFFF or synthetic foam concentrate types create an adverse eﬀect on the travel distance since solution expands during ﬂight. Foam monitors are designed to produce their optimum performance using only one manufacturer's and predetermined foam concentrate type.
C.S.I. S.r.l. produces handmade monitors from stainless steel plus several models from bronze or aluminum materials.